Cadeia do Espinhaço

Chapter 8

Part I

Jacobina, Bahia

  In August 2003, I visited Jacobina for the very first time. Following a suggestion, the trip had a purpose: I was to locate the habitat of the elusive Orthophytum navioides discovered by Mulford and Racine Foster in 1939. It appears there was great curiosity in the bromeliad community – thus the suggestion - as to its habitat, of which there was no detailed information available, save for a vague remark in L. B. Smith’s description of the species:

"Type. Foster 90 (holotype, GH; isotypes R, US), on perpendicular rocks above stream in isolated ravine, Jacobina, Bahia, Brazil, 16 Jun 1939.
Distribution. Known from the type collection only."

   Since Jacobina is at the Espinhaço range and surrounded by hills of different chains – meaning they are all over! – the search started in the right way, that is, as a big challenge! I was sure to find thousands of "perpendicular rocks above stream in isolated ravine!" But not all was lost. I had photos of the species taken from the FCBS site which I could show to the locals for identification and possible whereabouts. One has to start somewhere, right?

   A curiosity: did you know that all Orthophytum navioides in circulation are offspring of the individuals collected by Foster and his wife more than sixty years ago? This explains the note: "Distribution. Known from the type collection only."  Well, the situation remains to this day for I have never divulged the geographical coordinates of the habitats. Yes, habitats in plural, for I have registered three distinct populations in Jacobina and another 100kms out of town, after four trips to the area along the years.   

   Before leaving Rio I had homework to do: dig out information about Foster´s visit to Brazil and facts about Jacobina. The first was useless because his book Brazil, Orchid of the Tropics - 1945, was long out of print (and unavailable) and as to the second task I had to rely on whatever information I could find on the internet, which also proved to be of no practical use. What to do? It´s full steam ahead to get the job done! Is not a good challenge invigorating? So I left Rio de Janeiro with lots of enthusiasm…soon to be rewarded!

   When Mulford and Racine Foster visited Jacobina in 1939, the city occupied an enormous territory later subdivided into several new municipalities. So where to start searching? Whom to contact? A couple of days would suffice?   

   I will save the details of how the habitats were found. Suffice to say it wasn´t easy. I owe its discovery to my guide and his obstinate persistence. The photos you are about to see are being divulged for the very first time. They were taken in 2003 and over the years. This is a humble homage to Mulford B. Foster and Racine Sarasy Foster to whom we owe so much.

I acknowledge the usual kind assistance of Harry E. Luther (the bromeliad world will miss you, Harry!), Derek Butcher, Marlon Machado, Domingos Cardoso, Leonardo Versieux, Matheus Nogueira. Howard Frank and Adroaldo Araujo.

Happy New Year to you and yours!

Abraços, Oscar

P.S.: August 2011 I sent a message to Michael Andreas - webmaster of FCBS.org – detailing my plans for this presentation. I mentioned that the book Brazil, Orchid of the Tropics - 1945 was long out of print and how important it would be for this article if I could get a copy of it. To my surprise, Michael immediately responded: "I have an extra copy of Fosters book which I want to send to you!". Excellent news! Soon after I received the book and a beautiful card from Karen & Michael Andreas. Because of their generosity, this presentation is immensely enriched with the quotations extracted from the book. Racine´s narrative is splendid, contagious, easy to read and a precious source of varied information about the country, flora, habits, people, and, of course, the couple´s wonderment in exploring Brazil in the 30´s. Pure magic, dear reader! Why isn’t such an important source of information available in digital form? One can´t even find a review of it in the Internet. This is a challenge for the BSI in honor of the prestigious couple of American naturalists.

More info: http://journal.bsi.org/V06/4/

Harry E. Luther: http://www.bsi.org/brom_info/harry_departs.html
http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20121018/ARTICLE/121019533


Photos by Oscar Ribeiro

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Arriving in Jacobina
Arriving
in Jacobina
Arriving in Jacobina
Arriving
in Jacobina
Aechmea aquilega
Aechmea
aquilega
Aechmea aquilega
Aechmea
aquilega
Aechmea aquilega
Aechmea
aquilega
Aechmea bromelifolia
Aechmea
bromelifolia
Aechmea bromelifolia
Aechmea
bromelifolia
Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
Aechmea bromelifolia
Aechmea
bromelifolia
Aechmea lingulatoides and Melocactus
Aechmea
lingulatoides
and Melocactus
Aechmea lingulatoides
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Aechmea lingulatoides
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Aechmea lingulatoides
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Aechmea lingulatoides
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Aechmea lingulatoides
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Aechmea lingulatoides
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Aechmea lingulatoides red
Aechmea
lingulatoides red
Aechmea lingulatoides red
Aechmea
lingulatoides red
Aechmea lingulatoides red
Aechmea
lingulatoides red
Aechmea nudicaulis
Aechmea
nudicaulis
Aechmea nudicaulis
Aechmea
nudicaulis
Alstroemeria plantaginea
Alstroemeria
plantaginea
Ananas
Ananas
Ananas
Ananas
Ananas comosus
Ananas
comosus
Ananas comosus
Ananas
comosus
Anu-branco (Guira guira)
Anu-branco
(Guira guira)
Anu-branco (Guira guira)
Anu-branco
(Guira guira)
Arrojadoa penicillata
Arrojadoa
penicillata
Arrojadoa penicillata
Arrojadoa
penicillata
Arrojadoa penicillata
Arrojadoa
penicillata
Arvore (Tree)
Arvore
Arvore (Tree)
Arvore
Arvore (Tree)
Arvore
Arvore (Tree)
Arvore
Arvore (Tree)
Arvore
Arvore (Tree)
Arvore
Arvore (Tree)
Arvore
Babacu (Arecaceae)
Babacu
(Arecaceae)
Babacu fruto (Arecaceae)
Babacu fruto
(Arecaceae)
Barriguda (Ceiba glaziovii)
Barriguda
(Ceiba glaziovii)
Billbergia porteana and Ortophytum navioides
Billbergia porteana
and
Ortophytum navioides
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia porteana
Billbergia species
Billbergia species
Billbergia species
Billbergia species
Boa sorte! (Good Luck)
Boa sorte!
Borboleta
Borboleta
Borboleta
Borboleta
Borboleta
Borboleta
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia laciniosa
Bromelia
Bromelia species
Bromeliaceae species
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae species
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae species
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae species
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae species
Bromeliaceae
Caatinga (White forest)
Caatinga
(White forest)
Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae
Cachoeira dos Papaya
Cachoeira
dos Papaya
Cachoeira dos Papaya
Cachoeira
dos Papaya
Cachoeira
Cachoeira
Cachoeira
Cachoeira
Cachoeira
Cachoeira
Cachoeira Veu de Noiva
Cachoeira
Veu de Noiva
Cachoeira Veu de Noiva
Cachoeira
Veu de Noiva
Cachoeira Veu de Noiva
Cachoeira
Veu de Noiva
Cachoeira Veu de Noiva
Cachoeira
Veu de Noiva
Cactacea and Hohenbergia catingae
Cactacea and
Hohenbergia catingae
Cactacea and Hohenbergia catingae
Cactacea and
Hohenbergia catingae
Cactacea and Neoglaziovia
Cactacea and
Neoglaziovia
Caju (Anacardium occidentale)
Caju
(Anacardium
occidentale)
Carro de boi
Carro de boi
Casa
Casa
Casa
Casa
Cassia fistula
Cassia fistula
Centrosema coriaceum
Centrosema
coriaceum
Cerrado
Cerrado
Cerrado
Cerrado
Cerrado
Cerrado
Cerrado
Cerrado
Cipo de Sao Joao (Pyrostegi)
Cipo de Sao Joao
(Pyrostegi)
Cottendorfia species in flower
Cottendorfia
in flower
Cottendorfia species in flower
Cottendorfia
in flower
Cryptanthus bahianus
Cryptanthus
bahianus
Cryptanthus warren-loosei
Cryptanthus
warren-loosei
Cryptanthus warren-loosei
Cryptanthus
warren-loosei
Cryptanthus warren-loosei
Cryptanthus
warren-loosei
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Diversity
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Encholirium spectabile
Encholirium
spectabile
Epifitas and Aechmea aquilega
Epifitas and
Aechmea aquilega
Epifitas and Billbergia porteana
Epifitas and
Billbergia porteana
Epifitas and Aechmea aquilega
Epifitas and
Aechmea aquilega
Epifitas and Aechmea lingulatoides
Epifitas and
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Epifitas and Aechmea lingulatoides
Epifitas and
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Epifitas and Aechmea lingulatoides
Epifitas and
Aechmea
lingulatoides
Epifitas and Tillandsia
Epifitas and
Tillandsia
Espinhos
Espinhos
Estrategia
Estrategia
Estrategia
Estrategia
Extraction
Extraction
Feira
Feira
Feira
Feira
Feira
Feira
Feira
Feira
Feira
Feira
Ferruginous water
Ferruginous
water
Ferruginous water
Ferruginous
water
Ferruginous water
Ferruginous
water
Ferruginous water
Ferruginous
water
Filhote de Jararaca
Filhote de Jararaca
Filhote de Jararaca
Filhote de Jararaca
Flor vermelha
Flor vermelha
Fruta pao (Artocarpus incisa)
Fruta pao
(Artocarpus incisa)
Fruta pao (Artocarpus incisa)
Fruta pao
(Artocarpus incisa)
Gafanhoto
Gafanhoto
Gafanhoto
Gafanhoto
Gafanhoto
Gafanhoto
Generous land (Carica papaya)
Generous land
(Carica papaya)
Generous land (Mangifera indica)
Generous land
(Mangifera indica)
Generous land
Generous land
Generous land (Carica papaya)
Generous land
(Carica papaya)
Goodbye little friend
Goodbye little friend
Heroi do sertao (Equus africanus asinus)
Heroi do sertao
(Equus africanus asinus)
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Hohenbergia catingae
Hohenbergia
catingae
Idenificar
Idenificar
Igreja
Igreja
Ipe branco (Tabebuia roseo-alba)
Ipe branco
(Tabebuia roseo-alba)
Ipe branco (Tabebuia roseo-alba)
Ipe branco
(Tabebuia roseo-alba)
Itaitu
Itaitu
Jacobina Serra do Tombador
Jacobina
Serra do Tombador
Jacobina
Jacobina
Jacobina
Jacobina
Jacobina
Jacobina
Jacobina
Jacobina
Jaqueira (Artocarpus hetero)
Jaqueira
(Artocarpus hetero)
Jaqueira
Jaqueira
Jaqueira
Jaqueira
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Landscape
Lavadeiras
Lavadeiras
Libelula azul (Blue Dragonfly)
Lavadeiras
Libelula azul (Blue Dragonfly)
Lavadeiras
Making friends
Making friends
Making friends
Making friends
Making friends
Making friends
Mandevilla bahiensis
Mandevilla
bahiensis
Mandevilla bahiensis
Mandevilla
bahiensis
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Mata
Melastomataceae
Melastomataceae
Melocactus concinnus
Melocactus
concinnus
Melocactus concinnus
Melocactus
concinnus
Melocactus oreas ssp. cremnophilus
Melocactus oreas
ssp. cremnophilus
Melocactus oreas ssp. cremnophilus
Melocactus oreas
ssp. cremnophilus
Melocactus and Orchidaceae
Melocactus and
Orchidaceae
Melocactus and Orchidaceae
Melocactus and
Orchidaceae
Melocactus and Orchidaceae
Melocactus and
Orchidaceae
Melocactus
Melocactus
Melocactus
Melocactus
Melocactus duas cabecas (two heads)
Melocactus
duas cabecas
Melocactus duas cabecas (two heads)
Melocactus
duas cabecas
Mico (Callitrichinae)
Mico
(Callitrichinae)
Minuscule creature
Minuscule creature
Monkeys
Monkeys
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Neoglaziovia variegata
Neoglaziovia
variegata
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides
Orthophytum
navioides
Orthophytum navioides and Vriesea lancifolia
Orthophytum
navioides
and Vriesea
lancifolia
Orthophytum navioides and Vriesea lancifolia
Orthophytum
navioides
and Vriesea
lancifolia
Orthophytum navioides and Vriesea lancifolia
Orthophytum
navioides
and Vriesea
lancifolia
Opuntia ficus-indica
Opuntia ficus-indica
Opuntia (Not Native)
Opuntia
(Not Native)
Opuntia (Cactaceae)
Opuntia
(Cactaceae)
Opuntia (Cactaceae)
Opuntia
(Cactaceae)
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Orquidaceae
Orquidaceae
Orquidaceae
Orquidaceae
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Paisagem
Palmeira
Palmeira
Palmeira
Palmeira
Palmeira
Palmeira
Passiflora edmundoi
Passiflora
edmundoi
Passiflora luetzelburgii
Passiflora
luetzelburgii
Pilosocereus gounellei
Pilosocereus
gounellei
Pilosocereus gounellei
Pilosocereus
gounellei
Pilosocereus gounellei and Neoglaziovia
Pilosocereus
gounellei
and Neoglaziovia
Pilosocereus gounellei
Pilosocereus
gounellei
Pilosocereus pentaedrophorus
Pilosocereus
pentaedrophorus
Poco azul
Poco azul
Poco azul
Poco azul
Portulaca sp.
Portulaca sp.
Racineae spiculosa
Racineae
spiculosa
Racineae spiculosa
Racineae
spiculosa
Rich soil
Rich soil
Ruinas
Ruinas
Semente
Semente
Sempre viva
Sempre viva
Sisal (Agave sisalana)
Sisal
(Agave sisalana)
Sisal (Agave sisalana)
Sisal
(Agave sisalana)
Soil
Soil
Solandra sp. (Solanaceae)
Solandra sp.
(Solanaceae)
Solanum sp.
Solanum sp.
Stachytarphaeta sp.
Stachytarphaeta sp.
Stephanocereus luetzelburgii
Stephanocereus
luetzelburgii
Stephanocereus luetzelburgii
Stephanocereus
luetzelburgii
Tacinga inamoena
Tacinga
inamoena
Tacinga inamoena
Tacinga
inamoena
Tacinga inamoena
Tacinga
inamoena
Tacinga palmadora
Tacinga
palmadora
Tacinga palmadora
Tacinga
palmadora
Teia em funil
Teia em funil
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia juncea and Aechmea lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea
and Aechmea
lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea and Aechmea lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea
and Aechmea
lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea and Aechmea lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea
and Aechmea
lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea and Aechmea lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea
and Aechmea
lingulatoides
Tillandsia juncea
Tillandsia juncea
Tillandsia juncea
Tillandsia juncea
Tillandsia juncea
Tillandsia juncea
Tillandsia recurvata and usneoides
Tillandsia recurvata
and usneoides
Tillandsia recurvata and usneoides
Tillandsia recurvata
and usneoides
Tillandsia streptocarpa and Orthophytum navioides
Tillandsia streptocarpa
and Orthophytum
navioides
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia heubergeri
Tillandsia
heubergeri
Tillandsia heubergeri
Tillandsia
heubergeri
Tillandsia heubergeri
Tillandsia
heubergeri
Tillandsia loliacea
Tillandsia
loliacea
Tillandsia loliacea
Tillandsia
loliacea
Tillandsia loliacea
Tillandsia
loliacea
Tillandsia loliacea
Tillandsia
loliacea
Tillandsia recurvata
Tillandsia
recurvata
Tillandsia recurvata
Tillandsia
recurvata
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia
sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia
sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia
sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia
sp.
Tillandsia  and Orthophytum navioides
Tillandsia
and Orthophytum
navioides
Tillandsia  and Orthophytum navioides
Tillandsia
and Orthophytum
navioides
Tillandsia  on the wire
Tillandsia
on the wire
Tillandsia  on the wire
Tillandsia
on the wire
Tillandsia  recurvata
Tillandsia
recurvata
Tillandsia  recurvata
Tillandsia
recurvata
Tillandsia  recurvata
Tillandsia
recurvata
Tillandsia  recurvata
Tillandsia
recurvata
Tillandsia  sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia  sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia  sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia  sp.
Tillandsia sp.
Tillandsia  streptocarpa
Tillandsia
streptocarpa
Tillandsia  tenuifolia
Tillandsia
tenuifolia
Tillandsia  tenuifolia
Tillandsia
tenuifolia
Turnera
Turnera
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Ventura
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea lancifolia
Vriesea
lancifolia
Vriesea sp.
Vriesea sp.
Vriesea sp.
Vriesea sp.
Vriesea exaltata
Vriesea
exaltata
Vriesea exaltata
Vriesea
exaltata
Vriesea exaltata
Vriesea
exaltata
Vriesea exaltata
Vriesea
exaltata
Jacobina
Jacobina


Chapter 8 - Bahia

Chapter 8, Part II - Estância Bandeirantes, Jacobina, Bahia

Chapter 8, Part III - Past, Present, Future


http://fcbs.org/                      © Copyright Notice: All photos copyright Oscar Ribeiro, Bromeliário Imperialis